This would have taken place in any time of the eygyption dynasty. They kept there burial rituals and tradions of death throughout there three time periods: the old kingdom: the Middle Kingdom and the new kingdom. While researching I learned about the Canopic jars. These jars were used to hold vital organs of the mummy. Something I also learned that the Egyptians believed the center of inteligence dwelled in the heart. I enjoyed things about this project. Something I enjoyed was cutting a hole in Justin beaber with a drill. Something that was a challenge was my group. I think it would have been easier to work in a group of 2. In a group of three it is hard to agree on the project and other things. So I wish I could of been with my original group of just Nathan and me.
Is Sumer a civilization
Sumer is often called the cradle of civilization. In this essay, that will be proven. This essay will discuss three features of civilization including, central government, writing and organized religion. It can be said with almost complete certainty that Sumer is a civilization.
The Sumerian government had many positions of power. The Sumerian government was ruled by kings. The kings had many duties like, enforcing law and tax, building temples and the command of the army. The government was biased around the king. Most people even thought that the king was chosen by the Gods. Every king ruled over its own city-state. A different part of the government was the army. The army consisted of full time and citizen soldiers. Soldiers might have gotten privileges like our veterans do. The government made behavior and life orderly and made sure irrigation systems were working. The governors were also part of the government. They ruled out lying towns. Governors were not as important as the king, but still had a position of power.
Sumerian writing was one of the oldest techniques ever. Cuneiform was the writing system. It used pictographs to depict real life symbols. Cuneiform had about 700 symbols. The stile of writing was accepted though out the middles east. It was very hard to learn and master. If a pupil wanted to master cuneiform, they had to visit a temple, or scribe school. All documents and holy texts were written in cuneiform. Another part of the writing system was schools. The schools taught many important things, like standard measurement, and numbers. The numbers were based from 6 to 10. Genders were given equal education. Though not many could write, schools taught scribes to perfect their writing. Some materials they used to write cuneiform were a wedged stylus. Another material was clay tablet. They used the stylus to wedge in symbols into the clay.
The Sumerian religion was very elaborate. They had many parts in their religion. They had ziggurats or temples. These were holy towers that were maintained by the king. Every city-state had one. These ziggurats needed managing, so there was someone to keep in order. Uses for these ziggurats were praying for Gods and other religious activities. Some texts they might have read were, the story of Gilgamesh and Adapa. Gilgamesh was the king of Uruk. One day, in his travels, he saw a snake shed it's skin. Seeing it he realized that old age was the fate of humanity, and a persons life will shed away. The story of Adapa was that he was a very wise fisherman. The God of water thought he had so much knowledge that he should be a god. Despite the power of being a god, he decided to give up the power and stay mortal. He lived the rest of his life and died, a mortal. A ritual the Sumerians had was the burial. This took place after someone's passing. It showed that they had a big sense of community, and had feelings for one and other. Beliefs they shared were the afterlife and polytheism. The afterlife was the place someone went after died. The afterlife was cruel and inescapable. Polytheism was comment through out the Middle East. It means believing in more than one God. The Sumerian gods all parts of nature or nature gods. Most gods had one part of nature, but some had two. Some gods had more power than others, like most polytheistic religions.
Sumer is a great example of a civilization. The writings are some of the oldest ever which is a big part of it's legacy. It's many kinds of power, it shows that much can be done with an organized government. Finally, the big religion and what it ment to the society and the effect on the people in daily life. Sumer shows that great things can be accomplished with a steady hand. So that Sumer will always be remembered as a civilization.